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Understanding Low-Gluten, Medium-Gluten, and High-Gluten Flours: Uses and Differences Explained

In the world of baking, and even in ordinary cooking, flour is a very important and widely used ingredient. After all, from soft cakes to crispy cookies, flour is a necessary ingredient in many foods. When it comes to flour, even if you are a baking or cooking novice, you may have heard that flour can be divided into low-gluten, medium-gluten, and high-gluten types. But do you know the differences between these three types of flour, and what each type is used for? This article compiles information about flour, explaining the differences between low-gluten, medium-gluten, and high-gluten flours, as well as their respective uses.


Differences and Uses of Low-Gluten, Medium-Gluten, and High-Gluten Flours


Flour is a powder made from grinding wheat and is an indispensable ingredient in baked goods. The "gluten" in low-gluten, medium-gluten, and high-gluten flours refers to the protein content of the flour. Flour is primarily composed of glutenin and gliadin, two proteins found in wheat. Glutenin provides elasticity, while gliadin gives stickiness. The higher the gluten content in the flour, the higher the gluten strength. Flour with lower gluten strength can produce softer foods, while flour with higher gluten strength is suitable for making chewy foods. The three types of flour have different uses, and using the wrong type of flour in food preparation can significantly affect the texture or taste of the food. Therefore, it is important to carefully choose the most suitable flour. Below are the differences in protein content and gluten strength of low-gluten, medium-gluten, and high-gluten flours, as well as their respective uses.


Low-Gluten Flour

Low-gluten flour has the lowest gluten strength, with a protein content of less than 8%. It has the highest water absorption capacity among the three types of flour and can create a softer dough. In baking and cooking, low-gluten flour is mostly used to make cakes, cookies, and other foods that require a softer texture.


Medium-Gluten Flour

Medium-gluten flour has moderate gluten strength, with a protein content between 8% and 11%. Its water absorption capacity is moderate among the three types of flour, and it can produce an elastic dough. Medium-gluten flour is used to make foods with a more elastic surface, such as bread and dumpling skins.


High-Gluten Flour

High-gluten flour has the highest gluten strength, with a protein content above 11%. It has the weakest water absorption capacity and can produce a tougher dough. High-gluten flour is mainly used to make foods that require a certain level of toughness, such as noodles and pizza crusts.


T45 / T55 / T65 Flour

In addition to low-gluten, medium-gluten, and high-gluten flours, French flour is often classified as "T45," "T55," or "T65." French flour is not categorized by protein content but by "ash content." Ash content refers to the fiber, minerals, and other non-starch, non-protein, and non-fat components in the flour. The higher the number after the "T," the higher the ash content and the stronger the gluten. Generally, T45 French flour has an ash content of less than 0.5% and corresponds to low-gluten flour; T55 French flour has an ash content between 0.5% and 0.6% and corresponds to medium-gluten flour; T65 French flour has an ash content between 0.6% and 0.75% and corresponds to high-gluten flour.


Foodgears—Your Flour Expert

As a food ingredient supplier in Hong Kong, Foodgears has been committed to introducing high-quality ingredients to Hong Kong people for many years. They have sourced a variety of high-quality low-gluten, medium-gluten, and high-gluten flours from around the world, allowing you to make the best baked goods with the finest flour. Visit Foodgears now to choose the best quality flour for your baking needs!

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